The 4th of July - Ordination MR Dr. LEIRER

Medizinalrat Dr. med. univ. Hannes K. LEIRER
Kreisarzt & Arzt für Allgemeinmedizin
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Good   morning !

The 4th of July

Declaration of Independence

(Adopted by Congress on July 4, 1776)

The Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen United States of America

When, in the  course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve  the political bonds which have connected them with another, and to  assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to  which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent  respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the  causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths  to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are  endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among  these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure  these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just  powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of  government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the right of the  people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government,  laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in  such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and  happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long  established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and  accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to  suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by  abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train  of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a  design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it  is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards  for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of  these colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to  alter their former systems of government. The history of the present  King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations,  all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny  over these states. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid  world.

He has refused his assent to laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He  has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing  importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should  be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend  to them.

He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation  of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the  right of representation in the legislature, a right inestimable to them  and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together  legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from  the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of  fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He  has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others  to be elected; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of  annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise;  the state remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of  invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavored  to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose obstructing  the laws for naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass others to  encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new  appropriations of lands.

He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers.

He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies without the consent of our legislature.

He has affected to render the military independent of and superior to civil power.

He  has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our  constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to  their acts of pretended legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these states:

For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing taxes on us without our consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury:

For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offenses:

For  abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province,  establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its  boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for  introducing the same absolute rule in these colonies:

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments:

For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burned our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He  is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to  complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with  circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most  barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.

He  has constrained our fellow citizens taken captive on the high seas to  bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their  friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.

He  has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to  bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages,  whose known rule of warfare, is undistinguished destruction of all  ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these oppressions  we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms: our repeated  petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince, whose  character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is  unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting  in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to  time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable  jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our  emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice  and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common  kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt  our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice  of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the  necessity, which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the  rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.

We,  therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in  General Congress, assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world  for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name, and by the  authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and  declare, that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be free  and independent states; that they are absolved from all allegiance to  the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and  the state of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and  that as free and independent states, they have full power to levy war,  conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all  other acts and things which independent states may of right do. And for  the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection  of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our  fortunes and our sacred honor.

New Hampshire:
Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, Matthew Thornton

John Hancock, Samual Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry

Rhode Island:
Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery

Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcott

New York:
William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris

New Jersey:
Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, Abraham Clark

Robert  Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, George Clymer,  James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross

Caesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas McKean

Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton

George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton

North Carolina:
William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn

South Carolina:
Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr., Arthur Middleton

Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton
Rosen-Gasse 10
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